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Motivational interviewing

Motivational interviewing

About the author: Maria Torres is a master in Literature at Michigan University. She is currently working as extended essay writer She also studies male psychology.

Motivational interviewing is a counselling technique that helps a client in the acceptance of what happens in life. Clients with addictive behavior normally depend on motivational interviewing that contributes to solving their addiction problem. Motivational interviewing has greatly been used by healthcare providers such as doctors, nurses, and midwives. Most individuals who suffer from drug abuse are usually aware of the danger they are exposed to. They want to stop using drugs since they are in a dilemma. Therefore, all these clients can only be helped through the use of motivational interviewing. Motivational interviewing is applicable in modern society, and many healthcare professionals have already adopted this method. The application of this counselling technique leads to huge benefits to various clients as well as people suffering from alcoholism for their behavior change.
Historical Overview
The counselling technique of motivational interviewing is mainly built on Carl Rogers' humanistic theories concerning individuals' capabilities to practice their freedom of choice. Despite the wide use of motivational interviewing, its history is rarely discussed (McMaster & Resnicow, 2015). William Miller and Stephen Rollnick were actively involved in the creation of the first edition of motivational interviewing. With therapeutic effects, this was a well-researched finding that focused on the result of various interpersonal processes on the behavioral change of patients (D? rnyei & Ushioda, 2013). During the preparation for clinical trials, Miller conducted a proper training for nine counsellors in the field of self-control training and client-centered skills. Therefore, various behavioral changes experienced in the process initiated the origin of motivational interviewing. Moreover, under the clinical method, Miller, who had been requested to offer a talk concerning communicative changes and cure for all alcohol-related issues, was also actively involved with a group of psychologists who challenged him to validate on how he would retort to the customers he treated (Aryee, Walumbwa, Mondejar, & Chu, 2015). The psychologist caused him to familiarize with his clinical practices, and as a result, Miller initiated a new concept of clinical guidelines for motivational interviewing. Therefore, motivational interviewing originated due to the inability of the clinical method to solved clients’ issues.
Description of Theory
Motivational interviewing has gained popularity as a counselling style to help in the behavior change of patients. Since it originated from the clinical experience during the treatment of alcohol addicts, it was initially described by Miller in 1983. Self-determination theory is a personality development theory for self-motivated behavioral changes (Charania et al. , 2017). The main findings of this theory are that various individuals have a strong attachment to their organizational setting (Moral et al. , 2015). This theory was developed for the purpose of investigating various environmental effects. Self-development theory argues that individual behaviors can be fully understood through the observation of human activities.
Motivational interviewing is mainly set on the human behavior in social environment setting. This theory notes that people regularly modify their behavior due to increased interaction with others. The concerned therapists with essential counselling skills also help to facilitate behavior and personal change to their clients (Mayer, 2014; Lundahl et al. , 2013). Miller highlighted few fundamental principles that promoted motivation such as enhancing empathy and the development of discrepancy within the long-term goals and personal behavior (Locke & Latham, 2015). Dealing with resistance and offering full support to the clients act as the guiding principles of this theory.
Uses of the Theory
Motivational interviewing works in an easy way where the therapist allows the client to perform a certain task. Research has pointed that individuals are more likely to grow and change in a positive direction in their unique ways as compared to being in a group of people (Ma, Zhou, Zhou, & Huang, 2014). The theory is used to explain the reason that motivates people to behave in different ways due to environmental settings. Motivational interviewing can be applied in workplace environment to offer a better understanding of the different ways that motivate employees in the workplace (Riper et al. , 2014). Therefore, due to the application of this technique, employees are recognized; hence, they have the ability to perform better.
Advantages of Motivational Interviewing
The technique of motivational interviewing has various advantages in modern society, for example, it has formed the current basis of evolutionary theory. Moreover, this approach is instrumental in the explanation of what motivates people and the different levels of motivation. Further, motivational interviewing offers a proper analysis that can help understand causes of motivation. Various scholars have provided more research to the theory. Therefore, the theory is backed by well-researched information, which makes it a suitable source of behavioral change that can be relied upon. In the normal environment, motivational interviewing ensures there is full recognition of the biological needs of people and the associated needs of environment. The management of various organizations have also applied the theory in the workplace setup, which has helped increase productivity among employees.
Disadvantages and Ethical Considerations
However, motivational interviewing also faces some challenges in modern society that hinder its application. For example, complex behaviors may not be easily explained using the theory since it lacks a proper analysis of such behaviors. When motivational rewards are offered to employees due to a high level of achievement, it tends to demotivate them since they have achieved the set goals. There is also lack of more research to investigate the evolution of the theory over time.
The ethical consideration of motivational interviewing is greatly useful in organizational settings as well as clients in general. Huge benefits can be associated with this theory, while psychologists rely heavily on it to help explain why individuals behave in their ways (Cole & Bird, 2013). Different motivating factors initiate even behavioral changes among the groups concerned.
Empirical Evidence
Empirical evidence that mainly deals with motivation can be found in researches concerned with individual characteristic on certain traits such as gender (Channon, Marsh, Jenkins, & Robling, 2013). Despite different arguments, highlighting that personal level of motivation normally changes over time, there is evidence that motivation is the main player that generalizes other domains. Motivation in learning leads to later motivation in other studies such as science or social studies. For example, math-related motivation tends to relate to other math-related constructs strongly. Motivation is also related to success and IQ.
Motivational interviewing is mainly an evidence-based communication that normally helps various clients in resolving their greatest needs for change. Learning institutions have emphasized greatly on evidence-based practices to ensure that students receive proper knowledge. Motivational interviewing helps people to change and resolve their ambivalence concerning making their personality changes. There are four main principles under evidence-based practices such as the expression of empathy, the development of discrepancies, self-support, and roll with resistance.
Many people believe that practice-based evidence is mainly grounded in line with the culture of a community and that it would be a better alternative to evidence-based practices. Therefore, the former has a greater advantage since it is culturally competent and developed from the local community. Practice-based evidence is a range of various treatment approaches and the desired support that mainly emerges from a real cultural background. Motivational interviewing also uses practice-based evidence to help solve client’s needs and ensure they are at peace.
Motivational theories try to explain what mainly motivates people to act and behave in a certain way. Such theories can be applied in the workplace to help in the achievement of set goals and targets (Csikszentmihalyi, Abuhamdeh, & Nakamura, 2014). The motivation of employees makes them work hard and be fully devoted to their duties. Therefore, the management has the role of ensuring that motivational theories become effective. Under motivational theories, people have needs that are ranked in a certain order that requires fulfilment. The most common needs are physiological needs, such as food, water, or shelter, and they must be first be satisfied to move to the next step (Cascaes, Bielemann, Clark, & Barros, 2014). Once the basic needs are met, people tend to be concerned about their security, which causes the rise of safety needs since everybody is interested in living in a place free from any form danger or safety issue. The next main level of needs falls under social needs that mainly involve the act of being loved and appreciated by friends and family members. Further, the satisfaction of social needs leads to the emergence of esteem needs that help people gain respect and appreciation (Miner, 2015). The last form of needs is self-actualization, which means that a person has fully achieved the best in life.
Application of the theory
Motivational interviewing is mainly a client-centered method that mainly aims to enhance that client's motivation is achieved. This theory is applied when a client faces behavioral change such as increased drug abuse, and it aims to resolve ambivalence of the client’s behavioral change. Motivational interviewing can also be applied in various situations such as obesity treatment or prevention of chronic diseases. As stated earlier, this method has a wide use in workplace setting to motivate employees and ensure they meet the set objectives. Employees' behaviors are also modified using this technique through various mechanisms such as reinforcement and the stimulation of their actions to allow positive actions. A modified behavior is a critical aspect of any organization since it allows pulling together all employees despite their differences (Bright & Harrison, 2013). Therefore, using environmental setting, motivational interviewing can fully change employees' behaviors and ensure they meet the organization’s expectations.
Motivational interviewing is a counselling technique used by healthcare providers and psychologists for the sake of their clients. The technique was mainly built on Carl Rogers’ humanistic theories, dealing with personal capabilities. A clinical style, which was developed by Miller, also emerged as a better method to help clients with alcohol-related issues. Consequently, many people have solved their alcoholism problems as the result of the application of Miller's ideas. Motivational interviewing can be used for behavior change among various groups of individuals. The method also helps clients to identify different feelings and thoughts that cause unhealthy behaviors in their lifestyle. When the set outcome has been achieved, the healthcare personnel apply certain principles such as empathy and development of discrepancies. The use of motivational interviewing for employees also enhances the achievement of the company’s goals and targets.

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